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The Mediterranean sea (from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning "inland" or "in the middle of the earth") was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region, the Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Phoenician, Carthaginian, Iberian, Greek, Macedonian, Illyrian, Thracian, Levantine, Gallic, Roman, Albanian, Armenian, Arabic, Berber, Jewish, Slavic and Turkish cultures. For the three quarters of the globe, the Mediterranean Sea is similarly the uniting element and the centre of World History.

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